The greatest crossover rate observed in animals and you will herbs

You to website name shines once the an effective recombinational wasteland. No CO or gene conversion skills is perceived within the an about eight hundred kb region nearby both linked sex devotion genetics, csd and you will fem (Additional document step 1: Shape S14). We recommend that, just like the heterozygosity of csd find the fresh intercourse from honeybee [56,57] and you can diploid homozygotes is sterile guys, gene transformation in this domain could well be disadvantageous. While the gene sales try related each other which have CO and you can NCO incidents, all recombination will be abolished to avoid homogenization. An absence of recombination and forces the two loci to behave since just one haplotype.

All of our effects stands inside the hitting contrast in order to an early claim that discover exceedingly high CO costs in the vicinity of the fresh csd locus. A prospective resolution of the contradictory says would be the fact during the fresh instant vicinity of the genes there isn’t any recombination, this is exactly counterbalanced from the unusually high pricing regarding spans proximal to your wilderness. A lower solution studies manage locate the greater pricing throughout the spans. In keeping with this we to see a high level from recombination inside the the new instant vicinity of plateau (Most document step one: Profile S14).


The study add to the sense one personal hymenoptera has actually each other high and you can very varying crossing-more than prices. Actually, the rate varied between 0 and you will 197 cM/Mb whenever measured inside the low-overlapping two hundred kb windows round the chromosomes (Profile step 3, Figure S8 within the Extra file step 1 and you may Dining table S6 during the Even more file dos), indicating new very bumpy shipment away from crossovers on genome. The fresh new contour regarding 37 cM/Mb, whenever you are high for dogs, remains lower than you to definitely seen for most fungus and you will protozoans, in which pricing over 60 cM/Mb try advertised . Into the best of our studies, the fresh new estimate suggests a higher crossing-more price than just seen in people bush or creature.

A minimal NCO gene rate of conversion

While our study finds evidence consistent with several theoretical predictions, cause and effect are always hard to disentangle from correlation alone. For example, in principle the diversity/crossing-over coupling is also consistent with the notion that crossing over occurs preferentially in domains of high diversity and with the notion that crossing over is mutagenic . Similarly, the correlation between recombination rate and GC content is consistent with both the possibility that crossing over forces a high GC content and with the possibility that a high GC content favors increased crossing over. The conventional wisdom holds that recombination forces heteroduplexes within which mismatches require resolution. If this resolution is biased towards G and C residues (biased gene conversion), then a correlation between GC and recombination rate is expected . Previous analyses in honey bee have demonstrated fixation biases toward GC in high recombination parts of the genome . Evidence to support this direction for the causal arrow requires SNP analysis showing a bias to AT- > GC SNPs being fixed (or otherwise favored) compared to GC- > AT SNPs at sites of recombination. The key events here are most probably crossover-associated gene conversion events, but for these we cannot determine the direction of conversion and we are likely to be missing the majority of them. In our identified NCO events, if u is the number of AT > GC SNPs per A or T and v is the number of GC > AT SNPs per G or C, then the ratio of u/v is 1.06, which is slightly greater than the null (from stochastic simulations with 10,000 repeats: P <0.08). Being on the edge of significance, we cannot robustly say that NCO is or is not associated with GC-biased gene conversion.