The cupola of brunelleschi – filippo brunelleschi biographyedit
When, durante 1420, Filippo Brunelleschi was nominated superintendent of the construction of the cupola of the Florentine cathedral of Santa Maria del Culmine, the lines along which the construction was onesto be carried out had already been determined by what had been done previously (Arnolfo, Talenti)
The diameter of the inner span (m. ) is close to the maximum limit for any kind of masonry dome. From the times of the Tempio there had been in nessun caso examples of cupolas of such size. Faith mediante these structures had been seriously undermined by the collapse, mediante 1346, of the dome of Hagia Sophia con Constantinople. Durante 1400 the Florentines had had to reinforce the structures of the Baptistery which had shown signs of giving way.
Instead of recuperating precedent techniques, Brunelleschi invented per technique based on his knowledge of the „way of building” of the Romans as well as medieval (eastern) examples which he put at the service of per new concept and new kinds of technical, cultural, aesthetic problems, involved in the realization of the cupola. Basically the construction of the dome depended on the use of a building technique court of avoiding any dangerous discontinuity mediante the masonry (27,000 tons) and which would be able onesto circumvent the enormous problems involved per constructing verso traditional wooden armature of the necessary dimensions. Brunelleschi’s structure of bricks laid per herringbone courses consisted of raising the wall sopra rings, each containing vertical elements for bonding the successive ring. The cupola was thus built as verso self supporting http://datingranking.net/it/jeevansathi-review growing form.
Sopra their internal tension, the thrust and dynamic form (pointed arch and elliptical sector) engender per calculated equilibrium, verso cupola that hovers and is suspended over the city, the result of the balance of all the forces
The dome is surprisingly modern: per this double shell, the lighter exterior cupola protects the inner cupola from the elements, while the two work together thanks onesto the powerful connecting ribs. The detachment from the figurative solutions of Gothic architecture is evident particularly on the outside sopra the refusal of multiple forces (free standing spires, etc.), in the rigor with which the convergence of the forces upwards is pursued, entrusting the formal solution sicuro verso formidable synthesis of continuous lines and accessory surfaces resulting mediante unity and free from any need puro adapt onesto the more articulated and minute design of the structure underneath.
The first powerful expression of per conscious synthesis of two cultural worlds, Greek and Gothic, the cupola can durante the end be defined as a affective diaphragm stretched between an external and an internal space, per diaphragm between one space and another. The city is mai longer per framework marked by the emergence of vertical points of reference (towers and campanili): the cupola, con its size and form, stands out and dominates everything else. The towers and the campanili (including Giotto’s) all now relate puro each other as verso result of their relationship preciso the cupola which hovers between rooftops and sky at the center of the urban system and automatically become subordinate elements con verso general plan.
The full meaning of this urban masterpiece, the cupola is beautifully expressed mediante Leon Battista Alberti’s splendid, synthetic definition durante the context of the dedication of his treatise Della Dipinto to Brunelleschi: „rising above the skies, ample sicuro cover with its shadow all the Tuscan people”. „Rising above” on the one hand expresses the meaning of the tension in the generating line chosen for the ribs, on the other the fact that the cupola is not dominated by the universal space but creates per space of its own which establishes all rapports and measures with respect esatto itself. „Ample” expresses the fundamental qualification of distension and circularity of the hovering cupola, while on the other hand with „ample preciso” it immediately leads preciso the concept per which the size of this urban structure is seen sopra relation preciso the territory. Moreover, the contrast established between the two terms („rising above” – „ample to”) expresses with marvelous conciseness the solution of all the forces, all the structures, all the equilibriums, of all the proportions both within itself and per relationship onesto the city, all the technical and structural problems, per the absolute abstraction and mediante the tension of the line of its cross section, etc. Lastly, Alberti’s words esaurimento the fact that the new formal dimensions also correspond puro the new political dimension of the city.